Collecting On A Judgment


An Overview of Creditor-Debtor Law and Judgment Enforcement Techniques



Judgment enforcement law is about as non-uniform between the various states as any body of law.


Third-Party Examinations

In addition to examining the debtor, in most states a creditor can also examine any third-parties that the creditor reasonably believes might have information about the debtor's assets.

Suffice it to say that third-party examinations may have the ancillary effect of putting pressure on a debtor, who might not want friends, family and business contacts to be subjected to interrogation by the creditor. I have had numerous cases where the case settled just because the debtor didn't want to see somebody else (usually a spouse) hauled into court and examined. My friend and colleague, creditors' rights attorney Richard Evanns, once famously had an excellent result in a case where he found out that the debtor had a mistress, and set the examinations of both the mistress and the debtor's wife at the courthouse on the same date and at the same time.

Here, the most susceptible debtors are when the debtor is a business. No business wants its customers, vendors, lenders, and other key relationships messed with by outsiders, particularly a creditor. About the time that a creditor starts to send out subpoenas to any of these folks, the business debtor will have to make the painful choice whether to settle with the creditor, or jump from the frying pan into the frier by declaring Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

The Process

Third-party examinations are actually just a different variety of a debtor's examination, with a key difference being that the debtor is already subject to the personal jurisdiction of the court, and thus the court can simply order the debtor to appear, whereas the court does not yet have personal jurisdiction over the third-party, and the creditor must establish that by way of a subpoena served on the third-party. Otherwise, the process is largely the same: The third-party is required to show up (and sometimes to bring documents as well), and if the third-party doesn't comply, then it is jail time.

If there are reasons why the third-party should not fully comply -- say the creditor asks for all sorts of records that unreasonably invade the third-party's privacy -- the third-party may attempt to quash the subpoena by filing a motion with the court in advance of the examination.


C O M M O N      P A G E      F O O T E R



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For Past Articles click here




  • About Jay Adkisson - More about Jay D. Adkisson, background, books, articles, speaking appearances -


  • Captive Insurance Companies - Licensed insurance companies formed by the parent organization to handle the insurance and risk management needs of the business -



  • Voidable Transactions - Discussion of the Uniform Voidable Transactions Act (a/k/a 2014 Revision of the Uniform Fraudulent Transfers Act) and fraudulent transfer law in general -


  • Private Retirement Plans - An exploration of a unique creditor exemption allowed under California law which can be very beneficial but is often misused -


  • Charging Orders - The confusing remedy against a debtor's interest in an LLC or partnership is explained in reference to the Uniform Partnership Act, the Uniform Limited Partnership Act, and the Uniform Limited Liability Company Act -


  • Protected Series LLCs - An examination of the single most complex statutory legal structure yet created, with particular reference to the Uniform Protected Series Act of 2017 -


  • California Enforcement of Judgments Law - Considers the topic of judgment enforcement in California, including the California Enforcement of Judgments Law and other laws related to California creditor-debtor issues -


  • Anti-SLAPP Laws - A collection of and commentary about Anti-SLAPP laws and significant court decisions on the subject within the United States -


© 2018 by Jay D. Adkisson. All Rights Reserved. No claim to original government works. The information contained in this website is for general educational purposes only, does not constitute any legal advice or opinion, and should not be relied upon in relation to particular cases. Use this information at your own peril; it is no substitute for the legal advice or opinion of an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction.  This site  Contact Jay Adkisson by phone to 702-953-9617, by fax to 877-698-0678, or by e-mail to jay [at]